23rd June 1893 - Herbert Seabrook, aged 11 died after being admitted to the West Herts Infirmary over two weeks previously. Mr. Ford had not recorded the cause of his death, but over the past couple of years he had suffered intermittent attacks of St. Vitas Dance, as well as suffering from diphtheria at once stage. Unusually, the children of the school were encouraged to attend his funeral at Holy Trinity four days later, when Mr. Ford closed the school early to enable himself and the other pupils to attend. [S73, S76]
17th July 1893 - What was probably quite an unnerving incident which no doubt gave rise to much local gossip, was recorded in the school log book by Mr. Ford the Headmaster:
"A man named Walter Cook claimed authority to stop the elder boys from drawing water at the well on the green.
Mrs. Ford went with two boys - Ben Briggs and Herbert Mayo - to draw water at 8.50. am. This man pushed the boys away and also Mrs. Ford. He claims his right as a Copyholder. No one had interfered or made such a claim before.
I have written to Mr. John Parrott Bailiff of the Manor of Gorhambury in which manor the well is situated."
A reply was received on July 22nd. [S73]
22nd July 1893 - This reply to a letter concerning the incident of the well on the Green, was received by Mr. Ford:
Walter Cook is a Copyholder in the Manor of Gorhambury. That does not give him authority over the well more than other occupiers. He has no business to stop any householder from drawing water. It is quite certain he has no business to threaten anyone.
I am Sir,
John Parrott. Bailiff of the Manor." [S73]
12th September 1893 - Once more Mr. Ford recorded the death of one of his pupils in the log book. Edith Sear, aged 5, had been taken to Hemel Hempstead Infirmary on September 5th following a serious accident (the nature of which was not disclosed), she had died just over a week later. According to the burial register the family lived at Crab Tree Cottage. [S73]
A Memorial in Holy Trinity's churchyard indicated that she was killed on a gate at Cox Pond. The memorial also indicated Robert Sears her brother, was killed in the same accident. [S261]
October 1894 - £5 was granted for winding Leverstock Green church clock, when the inhabitant householders of the parish of Hemel Hempstead met in the Vestry Hall to decide how to "dispose" of £240 surplus income from the Boxmoor Trust. [Gazette, 20/10/94]
22nd March 1894 - Mr. Ford noted the death of another of his pupils, 7 year old Frank Dell, in the log book. There was no indication of the reason for his death. [S73, S76]
4th August 1894 - This day was recorded by Mr. Ford as being a Bank Holiday, possibly the first of it's kind. However, as the schoolmaster also gave attendance figures for both the morning and afternoon (which were admittedly low), it was presumably not yet considered to be a National holiday for all. [S73]
30th September 1894 - The death of Maud Morgan, a 10 year old from Pimlico who attended the village school, was recorded in the school log book. She was buried in Holy Trinity churchyard on October 6th. [S73, S76]
January 1896 - Mary Olive Dell was now a Pupil Teacher at the village school, apparently with particular responsibility for map drawing. [S73]
18th February 1896 The Watford Leader reported on page 3 on the Rev George Finch, vicar of Leverstock Green breaking his leg in an accident at Kings Langley. [HALS online services catalogue of Newspapers & Magazine articles which can be downloaded after running a search under the HERTFORDSHIRE NAMES ON LINE. http://www.hertsdirect.org/libsleisure/heritage1/HALS/
checked 8th June 2010]
1st July 1896 - According to the school records, the water supply at the school was turned on for the first time. Mr. Ford's entry is very brief and to the point:
"Mr. Davis visited this morning, 9.50 re the water supply. Water put on."
I wonder if the rest of the village also received water on tap for the first time then, or if the school lagged behind the rest of the village? [ S50 26/4/85;S73]
Week ending Friday 4 September 1896 - The Gazette reported that the annual meeting (AGM) of the Leverstock Green Football Club was held at The Rose & Crown. (Now a Private residence) It was agreed that the dressing room for the coming season would be at The Rose & Crown as before, and the meeting was told that "a capital meadow" at the rear of the pub had been secured to play on. The report shows that the Football Club had been in existence for at least the previous 12 months, and possibly longer; to date (Sept. 1996) this is the earliest record we have of the Local Football Club. [Gazette; 5 Sept. 1996]
Week ending Friday 11 September 1896 - A serious accident was reported in the Gazette, when the son of the proprietor of The Three Horseshoes at Leverstock Green was driving two gentlemen back from the station in a pony and trap, having met their train. When near the entrance to The Lawn, (a property which gave it's name to Lawn Lane), the horse bolted and the occupants were thrown from the trap. The horse leaped the gate taking most of the trap with it and continued it's wild careering until it found itself in the canal. Mr. Gowland sustained serious injuries about the head, and the other two in the trap escaped with cuts and bruises. [Gazette; 12 Sept. 1996]
Week ending 17 October 1896 - It was reported to a meeting of the Hemel Hempstead Highways board that the county council had agreed to pay £125 over two years to alter and reconstruct the raid from Midland Station in Hemel to Leverstock Green. Hemel was to contribute £50. It was agreed to proceed after a great deal of debate. [Gazette 17 10. 1996]
Week ending 24 October 1896 - Mr. Matthew Leno of Cox Pond Farm made headline news in the Gazette twice this week. Firstly, he was seeking help from the Gazette's readers (with the backing of the newspaper) for the one of his farm workers Mr. W.W. Thorne. Sadly Mr. Thorne's wife had recently died at the age of 34 after giving birth, leaving Mr. Thorne a widower with 9 children to look after. The youngest being 23 days old, the eldest 14 years old.
As well as seeking assistance for his workman, Mr. Leno had formed a Sparrow Club, with the intention of attempting to reduce the local sparrow population, considered by many farmers to be a pest, harming their crops. Mr. Leno called a meeting at the Bell Hotel in the High Street for like-minded persons, and was duly elected chairman of the society. [Gazette 24.10.1996]
5th December 1896 - The Gazette reported that the fund set up by Matthew Leno of Cox Pond Farm to support one of his farm labourer's left a widower with 9 children to support, was doing very well. Nearly a complete column of the Gazette was given over to detailing the donations made to the fund. It was decided the fund should close on December 12th, but when the article was published, the fund had nearly reached the grand total of £10. Donations had ranged from 6d to 10/-. [Gazette 5.12.1996]
17th December 1896 - Another Earthquake was recorded over the south of England. As with the earlier quake of 1884 no formal record of anyone feeling the tremors is known within our area of study. However, there are so many very accurate and detailed accounts of the effects of the quake recorded by persons locally that I feel certain its effects must have also been felt in the village. According to Sir John Evans at Nash Mills, the quake woke him at approximately 5.45 a.m. The account of his report, along with many other local reports from Bedmond, Abbots Langley, Leavesdon Asylum, St. Albans, Gorhambury and Watford can be read in Volume 9 of the Transactions of the Herts. Natural History Society and Field Club. A copy of which is held at
Hemel Library. [S146]
March 6th 1897 - The Hemel Hempstead Board of Guardians agreed to put down a deposit of £100 for the purchase of land at Bennetts End Farm for a proposed sewerage farm. [Gazette 6.5.1997]
Week ending March 20th 1897 - A meeting of the Hemel Hempstead Sparrow Club was held at the Bell Hotel in the High Street. The club had been founded by Matthew Leno of Cox Pond Farm (see entry for Dec. 5th 1896), who was its chairman. Mr. Leno presided at the first quarterly meeting of the club and presented the prizes for the greatest number of sparrows killed during the previous three months.
The top prize of £1 went to Mr. E.J. Dwight for killing 3,814 sparrows, second was Mr. H. Taylor who killed 2,957, and third was Mr. Gee with 1,635. The total number of dead sparrows for the quarter was 12,585. [Gazette 20.3.1997]
Week ending April 10th 1897 - The Hemel Hempstead Parish Council elections took place, resulting in the surprise defeat of two "veterans of the town's public affairs", one of which was Matthew Leno of Cox Pond Farm. It was felt by the Gazetter reporter of the day that as Mr. Leno was a Leverstock Green resident, and the polling station was in the Corn Exchange in Hemel Hempstead town centre, the long distance Leverstock Green voters would have to travel could have been to blame for his defeat. This was the last election for the Hemel Hempstead Parish Council. [Gazette, 10.4.1997]
June 1st 1897 - Mr. Ford recorded the death of Mabel Eames (597), in Hemel Hempstead Fever Hospital from diphtheria, in the school log book. This appears to be the first indication of a Diphtheria epidemic in the village that year that was to last through to the end of December (see further entries for the year.) and causing the closure of the school on three occasions. [S73]
June 10th 1897 - The school log book showed that:
"Dr. Wm. Gruggen of 14 Cleveland Mansions, Willesden Lane NW, the Medical Officer of Health, called" to see Mr. Ford concerning the cases of diphtheria in the school. [S73]
June 18th 1897 - Mr. Ford reported that school attendance was very low due to "the parents being very unnerved through the two deaths recorded previously." [S73]
June 21st 1897 - After the above gloom engendered by the cases of diphtheria, Mr. Ford was able to record that;
"School closed for the rest of the week on account of the Queen's Diamond Jubillee Festivities." [S73]
July 1st 1897 - Mr. Ford, the schoolmaster, sent Joseph Seabrook home sick. Two days later it was confirmed that he had diphtheria. [S73]
July 4th 1897 - Mr. Ford made another special entry in the school log book:
"Dr. Hubbard of Hemel Hempstead visited the Bisneys and Hunts in Westwick Row and states that 2 Bisney's and Nellie Hunt have Diphtheria."
Ernest Bisney had been reported as being away ill on July 2nd. [S73]
July 5th 1897 - The school was closed on account of the Diphtheria epidemic, not reopening until after the Harvest Holidays at the end of August. It was also reported that Maggie Peddar, Herbert Wilkins and William Ealow were suffering from the disease, a fact confirmed by Dr. Fisher the following day. [S73]
July 23rd 1897 - Mr. Ford reported that the Harvest Holidays had officially begun and that:
"During the above closure Ernest Cole was taken to the Hemel Hempstead Isolation Hospital with Diphtheria", and that "Mr. David Sears' children at Crab Tree Cottages were also down with it." [S73
September 15th 1897 - After a lull, Diphtheria had once again appeared in the village, with Dr. Fisher calling on Mr. Ford to inform him that Minnie Morgan had gone down with it. [S73]
September 17th 1897 - Mr. Ford noted in the school log book that:
"Received notice from Dr. William Gruggen the Medical Officer of Health that Minnie Morgan has Diphtheria and that no children should attend from the house until the Medical Attendant or Himself certified the house to be free from infection. Harold Charge lives in the same house." [S73]
September 22nd 1897 - During the afternoon the Medical Officer of Health. Dr. Gruggen, visited the village school and examined every child's throat. [S73]
September 28th 1897 - Mr. Ford received orders to close the village school until October 11th. [S73]
October 15th 1897 - Although the school reopened on the 11th, Mr. Ford reported that attendance was very poor, and that the parents seemed afraid to send their children to school. [S73]
October 27th 1897 - Mr. Ford reported in the log book that:
"Mr. Everett visited this afternoon. Maud Lawrance & Charles Porter of Pimlico were taken away from home on Monday night last (Oct. 25th) to the Watford Isolation Hospital suffering from Diphtheria."
November 8th 1897 - Mr. Ford reported that the Taylor children from Bennetts End were absent with Diphtheria. [S73]
November 11th 1897 - Annie Taylor, aged 10, died from Diphtheria. She was buried at Holy Trinity on November 13th. [S73, S76]
November 12th 1897 - Mr. Ford reported that "Parents and children seem scared at the above death." [S73]
November 16th 1897 - Mr. Ford received a note from Dr. Hubbard confirming that Ellen Cole had Diphtheria, he also received a notice from Dr. Gruggen to close the school. [S73]
December 1st 1897 - Mr. Ford received a further notice from the MOH stating that the school was to remain closed for a further 3 weeks. As this brought the date to Christmas Eve, the Christmas holidays lengthened the closure for a further two weeks.
1898 - Hemel Hempstead became a municipal Borough, the only town to be transformed from a parish to Borough. As part of Leverstock Green was now within the Borough boundaries, it would have inevitably benefited from this rationalisation, especially with regard to such services as water and highways. [ S1 ]
The second edition 25" to the mile O.S. maps which covered this area were published. There were few changes in the dwellings in the area, although there were a few other changes of note.
The cottages we now know as Blacksmiths Row were shown as 7 dwellings rather All the various ponds mentioned in 1872 were still there.
The position of the post office had changed slightly, moving up the street three of four houses, and the semicircular driveway at the Leather Bottle had gone.
A new brickworks had opened up opposite Hill Farm. It occurs to me that this might be connected with William Childs, as he had started in the brickmaking business, according to Kelly's Directory. (see below) The other brickworkings were still in operation, with the principal Acorn Brickworks having established itself in a new site slightly further down Bennetts End Lane. The main clay pits, brickfields and kilns immediately around Tilekiln Farm having been abandoned. The brickfields further in towards the village, down Tile Kiln Lane were larger.
The entry in Kelly's Directory for this year was virtually unchanged, except in that the net yearly value of the living at Holy Trinity was £259 - down £1 - and there was no mention of any tithe rents. John Dickinson had sadly died, and now his son Thomas, was, along with the Earl of Verulam a principal landowner in the area. The saddest news contained in the directory was that John Child had died and was therefore no longer the Parish Clerk, sub-postmaster and wheelwright. Instead his position in the parish had been filled by George Doggett ( a newcomer one assumes as he was not previously mentioned in the previous entry). Mrs. Laura Elizabeth Smith had taken over as sub-postmistress, and presumably running the post-office in conjunction with a shop as she is also listed as a shopkeeper. It was also to be noted that postal orders could be issued at Leverstock Green, but could not be cashed here.
The Fords still ran the village school, but unfortunately attendance had dropped to 104 from 125 in 1890.
A Mr. Thomas Daniel Cox was mentioned as a principal resident, and the village once more had its own blacksmith in the person of James Bishop. It seems likely to me that James Bishop was the son of John Bishop, who had been mentioned in previous years as a wheelwright.
Other changes showed that John Child's son William, although still keeping his trade as a wheelwright, had given up beekeeping, and had gone into brickmaking instead. There was now a third shoe maker in the village - William Cooper- who had presumably given up dealing in hay. In fact in this year there was no mention of anyone still dealing in hay. John Dell had added a drapers business to the retailing of beer, and Arthur Seabrook at the Leather Bottle, had also become a shopkeeper, making a total of three shopkeepers ( or 5 if you include the fishmongers and the drapers).
Pheasant breeding was now only done by Matthew Leno at Cox Pond Farm. The rest of the farming community remained much as before, except that Leslie Darter was at Bennetts End Farm instead of Nathaniel Robinson, and William Howe had taken over from Mrs. Daniel Howe (presumably his mother). Also Henry Perry had taken over from William Perry as a farmer and coal dealer - again presumably a son taking over from his father. William Steers, although still at Chambersbury Cottage, was now listed as a coal and corn dealer rather than a farmer.
Keeping the village supplied with ale was still carried out by a relatively large number of people. Arthur Seabrook was still at the Leather Bottle, as was George Timson at the Red Lion. The Rose and Halswn had a new licensee - George Ernest Page. Assisting them in keeping the village in beer were George Fountain, Vincent Gerrish, George Howlett, and John Smith. [ Kel.Dir. ]
An Alderman Stone, in his memoirs, recalls picking up stones in Leverstock Green for 1s. a cartload, this presumably as part of work carried out by the Borough's Highway Committee. [ S1 - p.131]
January 10th 1898 - The village school reopened after a long closure due to an epidemic of Diphtheria. Two families, the Coles and the Sells, were still not allowed to return to school until receiving permission from the MOH. [S73]
January 15th 1898 - The Gazette reported concern that there was a lack of clean water in Leverstock Green, with case of diphtheria being reported. St. Albans Rural District Council was told that Hemel Hempstead only supplied water as far as the Leather Bottle. The council also heard there was water in the wells, but some people had difficulty in getting o them and had used drain water. [Gazette 15/1/1998]
January 28th 1898 - A grant was made to the school of £28.9s 3d from the Education Department for the purpose of repairs and providing new furniture.
February 25th 1898 - Mr. Ford, the village schoolmaster, "Received information from Mr. John Robinson, Sanitary Inspector, that Mrs. Porter of Pimlico whose children Eliza, George and Charles attend here, is nursing her daughter at Bedmond who has the Scarlet Fever." [S73]
March 14th 1898 Mr. Ford, at the school reported that:
"The three Porters are still unable to attend School as another of the family was removed last Friday evening to Watford Isolation Hospital.[S73]
March 15th 1898 - Having just recovered from the diphtheria epidemic, measles was now beginning to show itself, with Ernest Woodwards from Beech Tree absent with Measles. More children were to fall victim to the disease over the next few days and weeks. [S73]
March 25th 1898 - A severe snow storm blocked the roads and closed the school for the day. [S73]
April 1st 1898 - The school was closed earlier than planned for the Easter break, due to the measles epidemic. [S73]
April 16th 1898 - The school was closed by the Medical Officer of Health for a further three weeks on account of the measles. [S73]
August 1st 1898 - The schoolmaster recorded that school was closed as it was a Bank Holiday. Although a previous August Bank Holiday had been reported in 1894, this appears to be the first occasion when it was considered a National Holiday. [S73]
1899 - The 6" to the mile 2nd Edition O.S. map, sheet XXXIV was published at the cost of 1/6d. This map gives a very good overall impression of just how rural an area Leverstock Green was at this time. The field patterns are still sufficiently unaltered to show the early Furlong boundaries from medieval, and probably much earlier times1. The actual detail shown - although not so easy to see - is the same as that mentioned for the 25" map of the previous year, as they were based on the same survey. [ S15 ]
"..........The decease of the reverend gentleman came with painful and unexpected suddenness and the removal of one so well known and beloved has occasioned wide spread sorrow, not only in the parish where he laboured so earnestly and devotedly for many years, but in the adjoining town of Hemel Hempstead and the whole countryside. On the Sunday previous to his death, the reverend gentleman took full duty at Holy Trinity Church, and he was busily engaged in making his customary pastoral visits in Leverstock Green on the following Wednesday . Next day, Thursday , he was taken ill. Dr. Steele of Hemel Hempstead, his medical attendant was called in, and the serious nature of the attack being recognised a specialist from London was summoned on Friday evening. His condition from the first was very grave, the throat affection2 being very acute. As a last resource on Saturday night, Drs. Steele Halsss and Coutte (house surgeon at the West Hertfordshire Infirmary) performed the operation of tracheotomy, but Mr. Finch never rallied, and passed peacefully away at half past one o'clock on Sunday morning. The decease had been suffering from Bright's disease3 and the immediate cause of death was oedema of the throat. It was a sad Sunday at Leverstock Green, the entire village mourning the loss of their revered vicar. In Hemel Hempstead the intelligence of the sorrowful event was early received and the deceased's many friends, and indeed all who rejoiced in the privilege of having known such an estimable gentleman felt the shock keenly, and heartfelt sympathy went out to the stricken widow and family in their irreparable loss.
The Rev. George Finch belonged to an old and well known county family. He was the second son of John Finch esq. of Red Heath, Watford. His elder brother the late Henry Charles Finch who succeeded to the family estates on the death of his father, died at Red Heath as recently as May of last year. AS already mentioned the deceased gentleman was in his 64th year. He graduated at University College Oxford, gaining his BA degree in 1857 & MA in 1862. He was ordained deacon in 1859 and priest in 1861, in the diocese of Norwich. It was in 18614 that he was instituted into the vicarage of Holy Trinity in the diocese of St. Albans. Previous to that Mr. Finch served as curate of West Dereham 1859-62, curate of St. Stephens St. Albans 1862-64 and curate of Chidingfold Surrey 1868 and curate of Chichely Bucks 1869-71 from whence he removed in his preferment to Leverstock Green.........."
June 28th 1899 - The funeral of the late Rev. George Finch took place at Holy Trinity. The village school was closed for the day as a mark of respect. The Gazette reported very fully on the funerals noting that:
"Never, perhaps, was a more imposing and impressive scene witnessed at Leverstock Green than on the occasion of the funeral of the late Rev. George Finch, on Wednesday afternoon. Representatives from all the public bodies and institutions with which the rev. gentleman had been connected were present, together with a large number of friends and acquaintances from the surrounding neighbourhood, whilst the residents of Leverstock Green itself, judging by those present, had turned out en masse to pay their respects to one who had ministered to them for so many years. Punctually at half past three o'clock the funeral cortege reached the entrance of the Churchyard. The coffin having been borne from the Vicarage upon a hand bier, under the superintendence of Mr. White of Hemel Hempstead the undertaker. It was met at the gate by the Rev. H.J.Glennie (nephew and Godson of the deceased and vicar of Holbeck Leeds) who took the service assisted by the Rev. H.T. Wood (Rector of Aldbury and cousin to Mrs.. Finch) who read the lesson. As the funeral cortege preceded by the surpliced choir, under the direction of Mr. T. H. Ford (choirmaster)6 entered the church, "O rest in the Lord" was played by Mr. W. Child - the organist. The choir chanted the 39th psalm to a Gregorian and after the lesson (hymn No 401) "Now the labourer's task is o'er" was sung with much feeling. Whilst the solemn procession wound its way from Church to grave the organist played the Dead March in Saul. Immediately preceding the Blessing the choir sang (Hymn No 499 A & M ) "On the Resurrection Morning". The grave, (which was situated near the vestry door, and close to that of a child of the deceased), had been lined with fern leaves interwoven with white roses, arum lilies, marguerites etc. The work had been carried out by Mr. Dunbar of Boxmoor through the kindness of Mrs.. Bailey, and for which Mr. W. Davis (churchwarden) and others had kindly sent flowers. The lid of the coffin bore a large brass cross, inlaid with the inscription on the plate being as follows:
GEORGE FINCH M.A.
BORN NOVEMBER 1ST 1836
DIED JUNE 25TH 1899"
The report went on to list all the principle mourners by name. These numbered over , and that did not include those members of the congregation and Leverstock Green residents who turned up to witness the event. I suspect many may have had to wait outside the churchyard, perhaps just witnessing the cortege and interment from the distance beyond the flint wall of the churchyard. [Gazette July 1st 1899]
The memorial headstone on his grave reads as follows ; "George Finch, for nearly 28 years Vicar of this Parish, born All Saints Day 1835, died Sunday June 25th 1899." His wife Fanny, was buried in the same grave in 1935, aged 90. [S73, S261]
June 30th 1899 - At a special meeting of the School Managers, Mr. William Davis, Farmer of Well Farm was appointed Manager in place of the late Rev. Finch. Mr. Davis was to act as Treasurer and Correspondent for the school.
September 21st 1899 - Mr. Ford recorded the following in the school log book:
"Mrs. Finch, Miss Finch and Miss S. Finch with the Rev. Stephen Campbell visited this morning. A large photograph of the late Vicar has been hung on the wall of the schoolroom. It is the School Children's Memorial to the late Vicar." [S73]
1899 - 1936 Arthur Durrant was installed as the Vicar of Holy Trinity.[ S2] Arthur Durrant had graduated from Emmanuel College, Cambridge with a BA. He had been curate at St. John's Stratford between 1883 and 1885. Between 1885 and 1889 and again from 1891-4 he had been at the Mission Church of St. Peter in the parish of St. Mary, Plaistow East. He had been at Saffron Waldon Essex between 1889 and 1891. He had been perpetual curate of St. Peter, Upton Halsss Essex from 1894 till his appointment at Holy Trinity. [S304]
28th November 1899 - In an address given by T.E.Lones to the Herts. Natural History Society and Feild Club concerning the geology of the area, mention was made of the bricks manufactured in Leverstock Green:
"At Leverstock Green, Woodlane End, Bennett's End............,the beds of loam or brick earth are largely used in making bricks.........The bricks manufactured from this brick-earth are of excellent quality, of uniform colour and of regular shape." [S147, p.157-158]
1900. - A new ( hand pumped ) organ was given to Holy Trinity Church by friends and parishioners, in memory of the Rev. George Finch, who had been Vicar from 1871 - 1899. [S2 p.6 ]
February 14th - 16th, 1900 - The village school was closed due to the heavy falls of snow. [S73]
February 16th 1900 - Mr. Ford, the village schoolmaster recorded in the school log book that:
"The roads in such a condition through the snow that it is impossible for the children to get here. For two days no bakers were able to get here from Hemel Hempstead. On the 14th I had to cut a way from the Schoolhouse into the School." [S73]
February 25th, 1900 - Nathaniel Wishart Robinson bequeathed £500 to be invested, and the income to be applied in lighting, warming and repairing the Church. [VCH vol.. 2 p230 ]
November 30th 1900 - Mumps was obviously rife in the village as Mr. Ford recorded that over 30 children were away with the disease. It would also appear from Mr. Ford's comments of Feb.. 1st 1901, that it wasn't just effecting the children in the village. (See entry for that date.) [S73] text.